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You will notice that as you enter durations for the specific tasks, Microsoft Project automatically calculates the totals for the summary tasks.

The units we are using are weeks, but durations can be months, days or even minutes. We will enter them by adding the predecessor task number into the predecessor column. It is possible that a task has more than one predecessor. In that case enter the list of predecessor task numbers separated by commas e. This column may be useful to check your schedule if the predecessor information was provided in terms of WBS numbers.

Save the current version of your work before you continue. It may be difficult to view the entire project at this point. One option is to use the scroll bar at the side and bottom of the Gantt chart. Project can schedule tasks using two methods: manual scheduling and automatic scheduling. With manual scheduling, changes to factors such as task dependencies, constraints, and project calendars do not automatically adjust task dates.

Tasks are manually scheduled by default. Project managers who are accustomed to automatic scheduling with past versions of Project can turn the manual scheduling feature off for specific tasks or for the entire project. Some projects, especially complicated ones, may require Project’s powerful scheduling engine to take care of scheduling for you. The difference between the behaviour of automatically and manually scheduled tasks is demonstrated in the next section where we also learn about inserting lags.

The details of how Microsoft Project schedules tasks can be quite complicated and depends on whether the task is automatically or manually scheduled, the link types, any task constraints etc. However, actually placing the purchase order is likely to take 1 day. The remainder of the time was to allow for shipment and delivery. We will introduce a lag time now. This is because we are still using the default scheduling which is to manually schedule tasks. This has been scheduled automatically according to its predecessor relationship.

We will do that now. What are they? Change the lag value in this column to 10 days. If you no longer have this window open, remember that it can be opened by double clicking on the task. The time for the disk storage upgrade should now be 14 days again.

Use the undo and re-do arrows to check that you are achieving the desired result. This could also have been entered manually in the predecessor column. That is what you should do in the assignment work unless you are told otherwise. This is a milestone for the project. We could have other milestones during the project, but this is the only one we will add for the purposes of these practical exercises.

Notice the new milestone symbol that appears on the Gantt chart a small diamond. You will be able to view their relationship on the Gantt chart to check if it has been entered correctly. Modifying the timescale In some situations you may not want to use the default time scale used in the Gantt chart. In other situations it may be clearer if you expand the chart. Experiment with some of these options now. This will clarify what is meant by the different tiers. Try one tier, then three tiers and observe what happens on your Gantt chart.

Notice how this has condensed your Gantt chart. Assessing the sensitivity of your schedule The sensitivity of a schedule is a measure of how likely it is that the original critical path or paths will change when the project is underway.

If the likelihood is high, then the schedule is very sensitive. The sensitivity depends on: a. The number of critical paths in the network. In general, the sensitivity increases as the number of critical paths increases. You have already identified the critical path or paths for your network. How many have you identified? Note that this question is not asking how many tasks are on the critical path or paths , it is asking how many critical path s are in the network.

The amount of slack the non critical tasks have – if there is a reasonable amount of slack relative to the non critical task durations, then these tasks are less likely to become critical, i. Remember, Free slack FS is the amount of time a task can be delayed without delaying its successor task s.

Total slack TS is the amount of time a task can be delayed without delaying the project. Tasks on a path can have the same TS, but different FS — i. However, if a task is not at the end of the chain its delay will delay the start of its successor, so by definition, the task or tasks not at the end of the chain will have no free slack.

Free slack tends to show up in the last task at the end of a chain of non critical activities or in a single non critical activity. You can observe examples where tasks on the same path have the same TS, but only the task on the end of the chain has FS by looking at this in the schedule table. Give one example for this project. The drop-down list is in the Data group on the View ribbon.

You should now see the network diagram view of the project. You can also manually position the boxes. Select the layout option from the Layout group on the Format ribbon and you will see the various options available in the Layout window. Experiment with some of the options available on the Format ribbon. You now have a copy of your work to use in practica3. You will use practical3.

In the table that is displayed, you should see columns for the resource name, type, material label, initials, group, max units, std rate etc. If this is not the table you see displayed, select Entry from the Tables drop-down list in the Data group on the View ribbon. The resource could include both workers and materials such as equipment hire. In our example we only have to add the staff responsible for the tasks.

The staff resources that are available for our example project are listed below. Enter them in the resource table now. Note that: a. You enter the resource units into Microsoft Project as a percentage. Similarly, if there was a full-time programmer and one part-time or 0. When you group resources together in this way it means that they are interchangeable, i. If you need to make a distinction then you should enter the details of the different resources separately.

It is easy to switch between hourly and annual pay rate. Start means payment is required at the start. End means the payment is required when the work is complete. The calendar can also be changed for each resource entry.

This would allow you to take into account the differences in availability of work groups or individuals in the project. Note that there is an icon on the toolbar that is for assigning resources. It has the appearance of the head and shoulders of two people. You are now going to assign resource to this information gathering task.

In the pop-up window that appears you will see all the resources available for the project. The analyst is going to work with the marketing specialist on the information gathering task, so you must now select marketing specialists and click on the assign button again. Notice that although the number of resources have increased, the duration of the task has not been reduced. In previous versions of Microsoft Project the default setting was different. If the task was effort driven, then the additional resource would have reduced the duration for the task accordingly.

Microsoft Project uses resource and assignment information when calculating the schedule. It takes into account things such as: 1. The amount of work or overtime a resource is allocated. Key My Name is. Any text you are asked to key appears in blue. Click OK. Any button on the screen you are supposed to click on or select will also appear in color. This icon notifies you that a file is available for download in the accompanying student data files.

These resources provide all the materials instructors need to deploy and deliver their courses. A complete answer key is provided. You can incorporate them into your PowerPoint presentations, or create your own overhead transparencies and handouts. The Wiley Faculty Network connects teachers with technology, facilitates the exchange of best practices, and helps to enhance instructional efficiency and effectiveness.

Faculty Network activities include technology training and tutorials, virtual seminars, peer-to-peer exchanges of experiences and ideas, personal consulting, and sharing of resources. For details visit www. DreamSpark Premium is designed to provide the easiest and most inexpensive way for schools to make the latest Microsoft developer tools, products, and technologies available in labs, classrooms, and on student PCs. The membership provides a complete solution to keep academic labs, faculty, and students on the leading edge of technology.

Software available through the DreamSpark Premium program is provided at no charge to adopting departments through the Wiley and Microsoft publishing partnership. Note: Microsoft Project Professional can be downloaded from DreamSpark Premium for use by students in this course.

Contact your Wiley rep for details. Wiley Desktop Editions provide students with numerous additional benefits that are not available with other e-text solutions. Students also have access to fully integrated resources within their Wiley Desktop Edition. From highlighting their e-text to taking and sharing notes, students can easily personalize their Wiley Desktop Edition as they are reading or following along in class.

Wiley E-Text: Powered by Vitalsource When you choose a Wiley E-Text you not only save money; you benefit from being able to access course materials and content anytime, anywhere through a user experience that makes learning rewarding. Students can access it online and download to their computer for off line access and access read and study on their device of preference— computer, tablet, or smartphone.

By using the practice files, you will not waste time creating the samples used in the lessons, and you can concentrate on learning how to use Microsoft Project With the files and the step-by-step instructions in the lessons, you will learn by doing, which is an easy and effective way to acquire and remember new skills.

Copying the Practice Files Your instructor might already have copied the practice files before you arrive in class. However, your instructor might ask you to copy the practice files on your own at the start of class. Also, if you want to work through any of the exercises in this book on your own at home or at your place of business after class, you may want to copy the practice files. In Internet Explorer, go to the student companion site: www.

Search for your book title in the upper-right corner. Select Student Companion Site from the pop-up box. Now select Student Data Files from the center of the screen. Remember the drive name that you saved your files to. Richie Gregg D. Richie, PMP, MCTS is the founding member and managing partner of P8, LLC, which is a consulting firm that provides consulting and training in project management techniques, including advanced usage and application of Microsoft Project.

With more than 30 years of experience in the field of project management, working on projects on almost every continent, he travels all over the world as an international project management consultant and speaker. It was here that his love for both teaching and project management was discovered and developed. He began instructing in , has taught thousands people in classroom environments, and publicly spoken to thousands at a time. Video production managers must identify the production tasks, plan and manage the schedule, and communicate project information to all the members of the production team.

Microsoft Project is the perfect tool for managing a project such as this. In this lesson, you will learn how to navigate in Microsoft Project , how the software handles data, how to create a new project schedule, enter tasks, durations, and milestones into the schedule, and organize the tasks in the schedule. Your screen may be different if default settings have been changed or if other preferences have been set.

Later, you will set the option directing the software to go directly to the Gantt Chart view. Figure Microsoft Project Start screen Before you begin using Microsoft Project , you will need to become familiar with the user interface, also known as the Ribbon. This is similar to other Office applications in that the commands are in tabs, such as File, Task, Resource, Report, Project, and View. Selecting a tab activates the ribbon. Within each ribbon, commands are organized into groups; each command has its own button, which you activate by clicking with the mouse.

Project’s user interface makes it easy to find the commands you need more quickly. This view displays various task data as well as a graphical display of how the project is currently scheduled. Project Basics 3 The Gantt Chart view is the primary way of viewing the data in a project schedule. It became the standard for visualizing project schedules in the early twentieth century when American engineer and management consultant Henry L. Gantt developed a bar chart with two main principles; 1 to measure activities by the amount of time needed to complete them; and 2 to represent the amount of the activity that should have been done in a given time.

In Microsoft Project, the Gantt Chart view is the default view. A view is a window through which you can see various elements of your project schedule. You will learn more about the Gantt Chart view in Lesson 8. A project schedule is a model of a real project — what you want to happen or what you think will happen throughout the project. The schedule contains all of the tasks, resources, time frames, and costs that might be associated with such a project.

You can modify this schedule or any other project template to fit your specific project needs. Later in this lesson you will learn how to create a project schedule from a blank template. A template is a predefined file that can be blank with the default characteristics set, or it could already contain project task and resource information.

Knowing how to navigate in Microsoft Project and how Microsoft Project handles data will increase your efficiency in locating needed information. In this exercise, you learn how to start Microsoft Project and open a template.

Before you begin these steps, be sure to turn on or log on to your computer. On the Windows taskbar, click the Start button. The Start screen appears. Microsoft Project opens. This is the start screen.

From this screen you can choose to open a blank project, import information from Microsoft Excel or a SharePoint task list, open an existing project file, or open a template.

Additionally there are some slight visual variations between the two operating systems. You are encouraged to use this manual with either operating system and understand that the differences are cosmetic only and in no way affect the functionality of Microsoft Project Microsoft Project should be open. On the Start screen Figure , click the Search for online templates box located at the top of the screen. Type annual report preparation, then press Enter. The template is displayed and a preview of it is on the left of the screen as in Figure Figure Preview of the Annual Report Preparation template 2.

Double-click the Annual Report Preparation template graphic. The template is downloaded to your system, then opens a new project based on the template in the Gantt Chart view and closes the New Project screen.

However, it is recommended that they are stored in the default Microsoft templates folder. Project Basics 5 You have just opened a project schedule from a template in Microsoft Project.

A project schedule is a model of a real project — what you want to happen or what you think will happen. The schedule contains tasks, resources, time frames, and costs that might be associated with such a project. Later in this lesson, you will learn how to create a project schedule from a blank template. This is located in the upper right corner of the screen, just to the left of the close application button.

See Figure Using the resizing feature, change the width of the reduced window and watch how the ribbon changes with the changing width. Figure shows an example of the ribbon at a reduced level of resolution.

Figure Command Groups show less buttons The Ribbon at a reduced level of resolution Commands are accessed when button is selected 3. This will set the window back to full screen. Note the automatic change in the ribbon as shown in Figure In this exercise, you changed the resolution of the Project window and the software automatically changed the resolution of the ribbon command groups.

This is where the user will change options, save, print, import and export, set file properties, and much more. USE the project schedule you created in the previous exercise.

Click the File tab. On the left navigation bar click New. This screen is similar to the Start screen that appeared when you first started the software. From this screen you can open an existing schedule, start a new project from a blank template, or import from Excel or SharePoint. Click Print in the left navigation bar. This section provides a print preview, allows the user to change printers and the print settings, as well as setting the page options such as headers, footers, and margins.

Click Share in the left navigation bar. Here the user can send the project file as an email attachment or sync it with SharePoint. Click Export in the left navigation bar. In this exercise, you reviewed some sections of the Backstage Area.

Throughout this text, you will return to this area to check and change options. More correctly, it is three databases in one, as shown in Figure The first is a task database. This is where all task-related information such as the task name, start, finish, cost, duration, and work is kept.

The second is the resource database. All resource-related information is stored in the resource database, such as resource name, type of resource, standard rate pay rate , resource group they belong to, the base calendar they are assigned, and the maximum number of units for the resource.

The third database is called the assignment database. When a resource is assigned to a task, all of the assignment-related information for each specific resource on each specific task is stored here. Your screen should be on the Gantt Chart view. Place your mouse cursor on the Task Name column heading, but do not click it. You will notice that a ScreenTip appears, displaying the title of the column Task Name and its actual name Name.

Place the mouse cursor on the Resource Name column heading and observe the ScreenTip that appears as in Figure You will notice that this field has the same name as the one in Figure You have just witnessed two of the databases. On the ribbon, click the Task Usage button, located in the Task Views command group. This is one of two views that displays information from the assignment database.

Note the Task Usage button is a two-part button, with a submenu on the bottom half. Select the name cell of task 1, Perform Initial Planning. This is the Scroll to Task feature which will be discussed later. Figure Task Usage View Task Resource Planned work hours by resource Table shows the default view and the databases from which they collect information.

Knowing which database has the information will help later in knowing not only which view to activate but will also assist in developing custom reports. In this exercise, you viewed some of basic views in the software and the database that held the information. In the next exercise, you will become familiar with more views. When you want to look at data from any one of the databases, you must activate a view. In this exercise, you will learn about some of the common, default views and how to activate them.

On the View tab, select the Calendar view from the Task View command group. Figure Calendar View 10 Lesson 1 2. The Calendar view provides task data in a calendar format.

It is helpful when you need to get project information to those project team members who may not have, or know how to operate, Microsoft Project. On the View tab, select the Network Diagram view. Figure Network Diagram view 4. The network diagram view displays the logical sequencing of the tasks and the relationship these tasks have with other tasks in the project.

It is helpful during planning and execution and can show the complexity of a project. On the View tab, select the Resource Usage view. Click the Resource Name column once to highlight the entire column. On the ribbon, in the Data command group, click the Outline button then select Hide Subtasks. Auto fit the Resource Name column. You do this by placing your cursor on the right side of the column name and double-clicking. Click the Expand button at the left of resource 1, Audit Committee.

Your screen should look like Figure In other words, it is helpful to see the assignments each resource has been assigned. This is opposite from the Task Usage view you selected earlier, which categorized assignments by task.

CLOSE the file. When asked to save the file, click No. In this exercise, you viewed three additional, commonly used views in the software. Now that you are familiar with how to navigate in the program, you will now create your own project schedule.

You should perform all the planning processes associated with the project management methodology of your organization before entering any information into Microsoft Project When you create a new project schedule, the first task is to set a start date for your project. Opening a New Blank Project Schedule Rather than use a project schedule template, you can create a new, blank project schedule that you can fine-tune to your specific project. In this exercise, you open a new project schedule.

On the Start screen, click New. On the screen, double-click the Blank Project option. A new blank project schedule appears and you are briefly notified that new tasks will be created in the new Manually Scheduled Mode, which is discussed in lesson 2.

Your screen will look like Figure LEAVE the project schedule open to use in the next exercise. In this exercise, you created a new, blank project schedule. Now you will begin to add details to the project schedule, such as start date, tasks, durations, and calendars. This information should be entered in the sequence presented. When using Microsoft Project the user must perform data entry steps in a specific order.

Entering information out of sequence could result in inaccurate information or re-entry of the data. For example, if you enter duration information before setting the calendar options, the durations entered will be altered when calendar options are set. In this exercise, you create a start date for the new project you have created.

USE the project schedule you opened in the previous exercise. In the Properties group click the Project Information button. The Project Information dialog box appears. Single-click the drop-down arrow next to the Start Date text box once. For this exercise, you will change the project start date to January 4, Project Basics 13 3. In the January calendar, click January 4th. Click OK at the bottom of the dialog box. In this exercise, you specified a start date for your project.

You can schedule a project from either the start date or the end date, but not both. Most projects should be scheduled from a start date.

Scheduling from a start date causes all tasks to start as soon as possible, and it gives you the greatest scheduling flexibility. Scheduling from a finish date can be helpful in determining when a project must start if the finish date is fixed. Saving the Newly Created Project Schedule Once you have created a new project schedule and specified the start date, you need to save the file.

On the ribbon, click the File tab and then click the Save option. Because you have not previously saved the project schedule, the Save-As section is activated. In the Save As section, click Computer then select Browse. Locate and select the solutions folder for this lesson as directed by your instructor. Click Save. Leave the project schedule open to use in the next exercise. In this exercise, you named and saved your project file. It is important to get into the habit of saving your file frequently so that minimal information is lost should you experience a software or hardware malfunction.

Under the File tab, click Options in the navigation bar, then select Save. In the Save Options dialog box, under Save Projects, select the Auto Save Every check box and then specify the time interval at which you want Microsoft Project to automatically save your file.

You can set your project calendar to reflect the working days and hours of your project, as well as nonworking times such as evenings, weekends, and holidays. Defining Project Calendars In this exercise, you define the calendar for your project and set up two exception days holidays.

On the ribbon, in the Properties command group, select the Change Working Time button. The Change Working Time dialog box is displayed. Click the For Calendar drop-down arrow. In the dropdown menu, select Standard, if it is not already selected.

Using the scroll control at the right of the calendar, navigate until the calendar displays January, Click the date box for January Day and press Enter. Single-click the name of the exception you just entered. Then click the Details button. The Details dialog box appears. Under Recurrence Pattern, click Yearly.

Click the The: button, and use the arrows next to each selection box to select Third, Monday, and January. In the Range of Recurrence section, select the option for End after: then type 3, then press Enter. Scroll until calendar in the Change Working Time dialog box displays May, Click once on May 30, In the next blank exception name cell, type Memorial Day and press Enter.

The Details dialog box reappears. Click the The: button, and use the arrows next to each selection box to select Last, Monday, and May. In the Range of Recurrence section, select the option for End after: then type 3. SAVE the project schedule. Exceptions can also be used to indicate additional time away from the project, such as company-wide training days or morale events.

A calendar is a scheduling tool that determines the standard working time and nonworking time such as evening or holidays for the project, resources, and tasks. Calendars are used to determine how tasks and resources assigned to these tasks are scheduled.

It can serve as a project calendar or a task calendar. It defines the normal working and nonworking times. A task calendar defines working and nonworking times for a task, regardless of the settings in the project calendar. Base calendars can be created and assigned to a project, a resource, or a task.

Project, resource, and task calendars are used in scheduling tasks. If resources are assigned to tasks, the task is scheduled based upon the resource calendar. Cross Ref You will learn more about base calendars, project calendars, and resource calendars in Lesson 2. In Microsoft Project, the tasks you define contain the details about each activity or event that must occur in order for your project to be completed. These details include the order and duration of tasks, critical tasks, and resource requirements.

Tasks are the most basic building blocks of any project schedule. In this exercise, you will enter a single task in each row of the Entry table. Click the first blank cell directly below the Task Name column heading. Type Review screenplay and press Enter. Enter the following task names below the Review screenplay task name. Press Enter after each task name. Develop scene blocking and schedule Develop production layouts Identify and reserve locations Book musicians Book dancers Reserve audio recording equipment Reserve video recording equipment 4.

As you enter new tasks, you will note that each cell automatically wraps the text. The Task ID sometimes simply referred to as ID is a unique number that is assigned to each task in the project. However, you can define the duration of days, weeks, and months for your project.

Click the File tab, select Options, then click the Schedule option, and look under Calendar options for this project: See Figure Because different tasks usually take different amounts of time to complete, each task is assigned a separate duration. Do not confuse duration with elapsed time or work effort. By contrast, a task can have four work resources assigned and equate to 24 hours of effort in a single, eight hour work day.

This applies to start dates and finish dates as well. Click the first cell in the Duration column next to the task 1, Review screenplay. The Duration field for task 1 is selected.

Type 3w and then press Enter. The value 3 wks appears in the Duration field. Enter the following durations for the remaining tasks. Figure Gantt Chart showing task durations entered. You may notice that for those tasks where you entered approximate durations, the software did not draw a corresponding Gantt Chart bar. This is the result of Manual Scheduling. Later in this lesson you will change the scheduling mode to Automatic Scheduling. Recall that when you set up your project calendar in the previous exercise, the working times for your project were Monday through Friday from A.

No work is scheduled on evenings or weekends because these have been defined as nonworking times. Although the task durations are supplied for you for the exercises in this book, you and the project team will have to estimate task durations for most real-world projects.

Risk is an uncertain event or condition that, if it occurs, will have an impact on your project, either positively or negatively. Inaccurate task duration estimates negative risk decreases the likelihood of completing the project on time, within budget and to specification.

Developing good estimates is worth the time and effort. In the Manual mode which is the default , Project allows the user some flexibility in entering information. However, this mode does not allow the software to schedule tasks in a dynamic manner, meaning it requires more attention to maintain the schedule.

Automatic scheduling mode reduces the f lexibility of entering approximate durations and dates. This mode does allow the user to create a dynamic schedule which requires less maintenance.

Switching from Manual to Automatic Scheduling When you entered durations earlier, you noticed how the software dealt with approximate duration information — it did not draw a Gantt bar. In this exercise you will learn how to change the scheduling mode.

You can do this for an entire project or you can do it on a task-by-task basis, depending on your needs. By default, all new tasks are set to manual scheduling.

Select the Task Name for task 1, Review screenplay. Click the Task tab. Then, in the Tasks command group, click the Auto Schedule button.

Notice the change in the Gantt Chart bar for task 1. Select the duration cell of task 3, Develop production layouts. Type 1mo and press Enter. This sets the duration for that task. Single-click task name column heading to select all tasks. On the ribbon, select the Auto Schedule button. Note the duration of task 8 now displays 1 day with a question mark behind it. Select the duration cell of task 8, Reserve audio recording equipment. Key 5d and press Enter. Click the File tab then select Options.

In the Project Options dialog box, in the navigation bar on the left side of the dialog box, click Schedule. Look in the Scheduling options for this project: section. Note that you have only changed the options for this file, not the behavior of the software.

Click OK to close the options dialog box. Notice that at the bottom of the screen, on the status bar, that all new tasks are auto scheduled. In this exercise you changed the scheduling mode for a single task then changed it for all entered tasks. You then changed the scheduling mode for all new tasks to be entered into the file.

Creating a Milestone A milestone represents a major event or a significant point in a project. In Microsoft Project, milestones are represented as a task with zero duration.

On the Task ribbon, in the Insert command group, click the Milestone button. Notice that a duration of zero days has already been entered. In the Name cell of the newly created milestone, type Pre-Production complete and press Enter. In the Task Name column, click the name of task 1, Review screenplay. Microsoft Project inserts and numbers the new milestone as ID 1. Notice that the other tasks after this new task insertion point have been renumbered. Type Pre-Production begins and press Enter.

To insert multiple new tasks, select multiple tasks and then press Insert. The same number of new tasks will be inserted as the number you selected. A sample WBS for this project is shown in Figure Create Summary Tasks After you enter tasks in your project, it can be helpful to organize your project by grouping related tasks into phases, or groups of closely related tasks that encompass a major section of your project.

The phases, represented by summary tasks, identify the major phases and sub-phases in your project. A summary task is made up of and summarizes all of the tasks within its hierarchical structure, which could also include other summary tasks, detail tasks, or subtasks that fall below it. A work breakdown structure WBS is the hierarchical decomposition of the work to complete the project. Figure depicts a box-type, or graphical, WBS for the case study project you are working on in this book.

There are other WBS formats that can be used but these are the two most common. Select tasks 1 through On the Task ribbon, in the Insert command group, click the Summary button. A new summary task row is inserted above the selected tasks, all selected tasks are shifted down and renumbered, and they are all now part of this new summary task.

Type the following task names below task 11, Pre-Production complete. Production Post-Production Note that each of these became part of the previous section. You want each of these to become a summary task. Select tasks 12 and On the ribbon, in the Schedule command group, select the Outdent button.

Click the name of task 13, Post-Production, and press Insert twice. Two blank tasks are inserted above the Post-Production task. Type the following task names and durations below task 12, Production. Task Name Duration Production begins 0d Production complete 0d 8. Type the following tasks names and durations below task 15, Post-Production. Select tasks 13 and On the Task ribbon, in the Schedule group, click the Indent button.

Tasks 13 and 14 are indented and task 12 becomes a summary task. All of the selected tasks will be indented and a new summary task line will appear. Select tasks 16 and Tasks 16 and 17 are indented and task 15 becomes a summary task.

Figure Summary task Gantt bar Gantt Chart showing summary and indented tasks. The appearance of the Production and Post-production summary tasks will change once additional tasks are added in later lessons. You have just organized your tasks into phases. Working with phases and tasks in Microsoft Project is similar to working with an outline in Microsoft Word.

You can create phases by indenting and outdenting tasks, and you can collapse an entire task list into its phase components. This approach works from general to specific. This approach works from specific to general.

In the Auto Scheduling mode, the links create a sequential dependency in which one task depends on the start or completion of another task in order to begin or end. Linking Two Tasks When you created your project, all of the tasks in the project schedule were scheduled to start on the same date — the project start date.

You must create a dependency, or link, between tasks to correctly reflect the order in which work must be completed. In this exercise, you will link two tasks to reflect the actual order in which they will occur. Select tasks 2 and 3. Tasks 2 and 3 are now linked with a finish-to-start relationship. Select the name cells of tasks 3 and 4. Microsoft Project changed the start date of task 4 to the next working day following the completion of task 3.

Note that because January 18 was a nonworking day the Martin Luther King holiday you set up , task 3 does not finish until January 25 and task 4 does not start until January If necessary, scroll the Gantt Chart to January 24 so that the link you just created is visible. When you started the exercise in this section, all of the tasks in the project schedule were scheduled to start on the same date — the project start date. Hovering over it will make the note appear. Set Up Cost Resources You can use a cost resource to represent a financial cost associated with a task in a plan.

Examples of cost resources are travel, food, entertainment and training. So it is obvious that cost resources do no work on a task and do not affect scheduling of a task. Cost value of the cost resource is entered when assigning it to a task. Click the empty cell in the Resource Name column. Type Training and press the Tab Key. In the Type field, click the down arrow to select Cost. MS Project — Assign Resources to Task MS Project Once the task and resource list are complete, resources need to be assigned to tasks in order to work on them.

With MS Project you can track task progress, resource and tasks costs. Click the box below the Resource Name column for the task you need the resource to be assigned.

From the dropdown, choose the resource name. In the following screenshot as an example. You can also select multiple resources to work on a single task.

Now click the Assign button. Double-click the Task Name. Click the Resources tab. Click the cell below the Resource Name column. Select the resource from the dropdown list. The window is split in two, Gantt Chart view and Task Form view below it.

In the Task Form view, click under the Resource Name column and select the resource. We can also assign other material resources to the same task. In the Gantt Chart view, you can also look at the project summary task, to note the duration, start and finish dates of the plan.

In the following example, Assign Resources is the project summary task identified as Task 0. MS Project — Track Progress MS Project Once your project plan is ready in MS Project, it becomes essential for a project manager to measure the actuals in terms of work completed, resources used and costs incurred and to revise and change information about tasks and resources due to any changes to the plans.

A Project Manager should not assume that everything is progressing according to plan and should always keep track of each task. Resistance to formal tracking of project management data is normal. You can overcome resistance to tracking by explaining your expectations, explaining the benefits of tracking, and training people to track the task themselves.

Save a Baseline To evaluate project performance you need to create a baseline against which you will compare the progress. One needs to save the baseline, once a plan is fully developed. Of course, due to rolling wave planning or progressive elaboration needed to manage projects one can always add new tasks, resources, constraints and costs to the plan.

Also note, it makes sense to save the baseline before entering any actual values such as percentage of task completion. These multiple baselines seem contrary to the definition of baseline. You want to develop separate baseline plans for risk response and recovery. You will see Baseline Gantt bars displayed together with the current Gantt bars.

Update the Baseline for the Entire Project This simply replaces the original baseline values with the currently scheduled values. Update the Baseline for Selected Tasks This does not affect the baseline values for other tasks or resource baseline values in the plan.

Save Multiple Baselines You can save up to 11 baselines in a single plan. The first one is called Baseline, and the rest are Baseline 1 through Baseline It can be used as a project marker. It is visually easy to see how off-track or on-track the project progress is. Because it only specifies dates, it is simple, clear and easy information. But sometimes this approach might be fine when the actual work and cost values generated are close enough to your baseline schedule.

Select the current date. Check marks will appear in the indicators column for tasks that have been completed. On the right in the Chart portion, progress bars are generated in the Gantt bars of each task. This table includes Work Scheduled work , Actual, and Remaining columns. Click on Task you want to update. For this task, initial scheduled Work was 16 hours, because 24 hours is greater. In the example, a Baseline is saved, because the Baseline does not change and is used as a comparison.

Note: Actual work is rolled up and also reflects on the summary task. Change Start or Finish field in Actual group. You can fill Actual duration field as well. One does not have to finish collecting survey responses before starting the tabulation. Click the box under the Type column and choose the relationship according to your requirement.

Under Lag heading column, enter the lag in terms of hours, days, weeks, or years. You can also apply lag or lead as a percentage. As Soon As Possible means the task starts as soon as the project starts, if there are no dependencies that would delay it.

So, no fixed start or end dates are imposed by this constraint type, but of course predecessor and successor dependencies are maintained. Default constraint when you schedule from the project finish date. Do not enter a Flexible task start or finish date with this constraint. As Soon As Task is scheduled to begin as early as possible. Do not enter a start or finish date with this constraint. Start No Earlier Task is scheduled to start on or after a specified date.

Must Finish On Task is scheduled to finish on a specified date. Click dropdown box for Constraint type. Choose the constraint you would like to apply. It is a better idea to use a Deadline Date which has no effect on the scheduling of a task or summary task. MS Project will alert you with a red exclamation symbol in the indicators column, if the scheduled completion of the task exceeds its deadline date. Enter the cost under the Fixed Cost column for the task of interest.

Enter a Recurring Task Status meetings, status reports, inspection dates can recur with a particular frequency. In MS Project , you can specify recurring tasks without having to assign tasks each time separately. You can also assign resources to these task. Enter Task Name and choose Recurrence pattern. You can also choose a specific time for the task to start as well.

You can add time value in the Start box for Recurring Task Information dialog box to change this. In the following figure, start time of AM is entered. While schedule changes are made, it is also likely that the critical path will change from time to time. One needs to always focus on the Critical Path first, when one wants to apply fast-tracking or crashing to shorten the project duration. Slack or Float are key to understanding Critical path.

All task bars in the critical path, in the Gantt Chart View on the right, will turn Red in color. Gantt Chart View displays some limited resource information, as shown in the following screenshot. It summarizes whether there may be a problem by the red over allocated icon in the indicator column.

The Resource Usage view displays resources and all tasks assigned to them underneath the Resource Name. The left-hand side of the screen lists the Resources and the Task Names together with columns of total information for the resource or assignment.

The right-hand side shows a time-phased view. Click on Resource Name column heading. Resolve Resource Over Allocation One would need to either change the scope reduce the amount of work , assign more resources, or accept a longer schedule to resolve overallocation. If you add delay that is less than or equal to the amount of slack on the task, you will not affect the finish date of the project. Substitute Resources or Add Additional Resources You can manually allot some other resource to the task.

You can also right-click on the Time-phased grid in the right hand side window to display amount of overallocation by switching on overallocation. Now you can reduce the assigned hours. In the following example, 8-hour assignment is reduced to 4-hour assignments.

You will also notice a new icon in the indicator column to let you know that the assignment work has been edited. If actual work has been recorded, you must manually reduce the remaining work on the task. Remove Overallocated Resource You can just remove a resource assignment from an overallocated resource.

Level Overallocated Resources If resources are overallocated you can use resource-leveling feature in MS Project It works by either splitting tasks or by adding delay to tasks to ensure the resource is not overloaded. Leveling can delay the individual task finish dates and even the project finish date.

Project does not change who is assigned to each task, total work, or assignment unit values. Project first delays tasks to use up any available slack. Once the slack becomes zero, MS Project makes changes according to priorities, dependency relationships and task constraints such as a Finish No Later Than constraint.

You can enter value between 1 and , according to the amount of control you like in the leveling process. A priority level of will ensure MS Project does not level a particular task. By default, priority is set at or a medium level of control. Tasks that have lower priority are delayed or split before those that have higher priority. Click on the dropdown box and select Priority. Now you can add priority to each task as required. Leveling Steps in the Leveling process are only a few, but it is important to understand what each option does.

Project does leveling and overallocated indicators are removed If leveling is done completely, sometimes this might not happen. In Resource Leveling dialog box, under Level calculations, try to use Manual more often. For examples, if a resource is overallocated, for say half an hour more in a week, from 40 hours to Doing so will not level resources, but it will determine when Project displays overallocation indicators next to resource names.

In Resource Leveling dialog box, under Level calculations, use the clear leveling values before leveling checkbox is selected. Doing so will ensure Project removes any existing leveling delays from all tasks and assignments before leveling.

Here you choose to level either the entire plan or only assignments that fall within a date range you specify. Numerically higher ID numbers for example, 10 will be delayed before numerically lower ID numbers.

You might want to use this option when your plan has no task relationships or constraints. In Resource Leveling dialog box, under Resolving overallocations, you have several options that you can select.

MS Project will use only the free slack within the existing schedule, which could mean that resource overallocations might not be fully resolved. Selecting this checkbox allows Project to add a leveling delay or split work on assignments if Leveling Can Create Splits in Remaining Work is also selected independently of any other resources assigned to the same task. This might cause resources to start and finish work on a task at different times.

This allows Project to split work on a task or on an assignment if Leveling Can Adjust Individual Assignments on a Task is also selected as a way of resolving overallocation. Selecting this allows Project to level a manually scheduled task just as it would an automatically scheduled task. This will appear under the fields labeled Cost or Total Cost.

At this stage, the project manager would be focusing on collecting, monitoring, analyzing project performance, and updating project status by communicating with the stakeholders. When there is a difference between what is planned and the actual project performance, it is called a Variance.

Variance is mostly measured in terms of Time and Cost. Task Slippage There are several ways to view task with variance. By comparing the currently scheduled Gantt bars with baseline Gantt bars, you can see what tasks started later than planned or took longer to complete.

MS Project will filter the task list to show only the tasks filtered in this process. So if you select Slipping Task, you will view only incomplete tasks.



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Microsoft Project is a project management software product, developed and sold by is designed to assist a project manager in developing a schedule, assigning resources to tasks, tracking progress, managing the budget, and analyzing workloads.. Microsoft Project was the company’s third Microsoft Windows-based application. Within a few years . Jan 21,  · Microsoft Project has the options available for viewing and printing a Gantt chart that can be saved as an Adobe pdf file. This article discusses how to set up your tasks view, Gantt chart view, and corresponding printer options in Microsoft Project to create an adobe pdf file of your project for wide distribution. Meet the Project program. Meet the Project family. See the new features in Project New features in earlier versions. New in Project New in Project New in Project Take a project manager’s perspective. Let’s get started! Chapter 2 Take a guided tour. Practice files. Explore the Project user interface.


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Microsoft Press. ISBN The first release of Windows NT was larger and slower than expected, so the next major push was a project called Daytona, named after the speedway in Florida. The main goals for this release were to reduce the size of the system, increase the speed of the system, and, of course, to make it more reliable. CBS Interactive. Archived from the original on 2 April Retrieved 10 August Paul Thurrott’s SuperSite for Windows.

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